First we report an increase in the permitted abstractions, but it remains difficult to estimate how much water is effectively abstracted as the actual abstractions are thought to be significantly higher than the permitted ones, particularly in dry periods when 60% to 95% of the river water in the upper basin is abstracted [, How did these increased abstractions affect the discharge of the Ewaso Ng’iro River? View Wannon River Swamps in Google Maps. Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. Message. Reaching the head of the swamp at Merti, 180 km downstream from Archer’s Post, requires a discharge at Archer’s Post of 0.18 MCM per day, as the river loses about 1000 m, Various authors have studied the effects of abstractions upstream on the discharge of the Ewaso Ng’iro River, with some using models to predict the effects of these abstractions on downstream discharge [, The aforementioned size of the Lorian Swamp of 2310 km. De Leeuw, J.; Waweru, M.; Onyango, O.; Maloba, M.; Nguru, P.; Said, M.; Aligula, H.M.; Reid, R. Distribution and diversity of wildlife in Northern Kenya in relation to livestock and permanent water points. Our results suggest that benefits from surface water for domestic use and forage production are vulnerable to abstractions upstream whereas the benefits from the aquifer, with significant fossil water, are likely to be affected in the long run, but not the short term. New!! Available online: Liniger, H.P. The Athi, Lake Naivasha, Tana and Ewaso Nyiro river basins have their source in Aberdare Forest Reserve. The ranges also have several tributaries, and higher up are bog markings that are the source of the rivers on the moorlands and afro-alpine. Mean annual rainfall over … The swamp may almost completely dry up in drought periods. The Lorian Swamp is an area of wetlands on the Ewaso Ngiro river in Wajir South, North Eastern Province, Kenya. Without the wetlands, the drier uplands would have more limited value because herders would not have the nearby feed and water reserves to accommodate them during the dry season. The Official Drain The Swamp Store. Kenya, and drains into the Ewaso Nyiro, and the Bisanadi that drains into the River Tana. 2011, Smithsonian Digital Repository. River Ewaso Nyiro drains the slopes of the Aberdare Range and Mount Kenya crossing over the flush and arid Laikipia Plateau and Archer’s Post beyond which it crosses an undulating plateau where it changes to an ephemeral river to discharge its waters near Habaswein, into Lorian Swamp. There is large variation in monthly NDVI for the swamp and the surrounding rainfed area (, The pattern of vegetation greenness of the swamp area and the surrounding rainfed vegetation is further expressed in, One would expect that the discharge of river water into the swamp would promote primary production and thereby increase the NDVI of the swamp above that of the surrounding rainfed areas. There are four perennial rivers in the district, namely, Ewaso Nyiro that drains into Lorian Swamp, Isiolo River that originates from Mt. Another name for black cotton soil is A. Clay soil C. Loamy soil Mountains of the World: Water Towers for the 21st Century—A Contribution to Global Freshwater Mountain Agenda, Through Jubaland to the Lorian Swamp, an Adventurous Journey of Exploration and Sport in the Unknown African Forests and Deserts of Jubaland to the Unexplored Lorian Swamp, Study of the Merti Aquifer Final Report, Volume I—Main Report, Kenya, Groundwater Governance Case Study; Water Papers, Geo-Hydrology of North Eastern Province, Kenya; USGS Water Supply Paper 1757-N, A Westward Extension of the Tropical Pacific Warm Pool Leads to March through June Drying in Kenya and Ethiopia; U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1199, Assessing Water Availability under Pastoral Livestock Systems in Drought-Prone Isiolo District, Kenya; IWMI Working Paper 106, Help us to further improve by taking part in this short 5 minute survey, Innovative Urban Water Management as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: Results from the Implementation of the Project “Water Against Climate Change (WATACLIC)”, Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality, http://si-pddr.si.edu/jspui/handle/10088/16705, http://www.cde.unibe.ch/CDE/pdf/Mountains1998.pdf, http://water.worldbank.org/water/sites/worldbank.org.water/files/GWGovernanceKenya.pdf, http://www.africover.org/africover_initiative.htm, http://www.docstoc.com/docs/49140183/Kenya---1-Kenya-and-Water, http://www.agentschapnl.nl/en/onderwerp/orio-project-wajir-habaswein-water-supply-project, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, Surface water underpinning primary production, Surface water used for drinking and sanitation, People, water for drinking and domestic use, Ground water used for drinking and sanitation, People and livestock, water for drinking and domestic use. Name. We then screen digitized the boundary of this area with significantly higher NDVI than the surrounding uplands. MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. The swampy zone is 196 kilometres (122 mi) long and has a greatest width of 25 kilometres (16 mi), covering an area of 231,000 hectares (570,000 acres). Ewaso Nyiro that drains into Lorian Swamp and River Malewa that drains into Lake Naivasha. Malewa River on the western side of the mountain range drains into Lake Naivasha. The ranges also have several tributaries, and higher up are bog markings that are the source of the rivers on the moorlands and afro-alpine. 99 $28.99 $28.99. Such effect did indeed existed; the difference in NDVI between the swamp and its surrounding rainfed area increased significantly with the amount of water that entered the swamp over the preceding two months (, Three outliers in the upper left part of the graph (, This was indeed the case; in both years, there was an area to the southwest of the swamp that was green (, The three categories of water, the final services delivered by these water categories and the benefits they provide to people are described in. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. [1] wetlands; drylands; abstractions; environmental flows; ecosystem services, Mapping and Valuing Ecosystem Services in the Ewaso Ng’iro Watershed. [. Bannari, A.; Morin, D.; Bonn, F.; Huete, A.R. [1] Sandai. When left uncontrolled, rising retention and use of water upstream deprives downstream communities from the benefits derived from their traditional sources of water. The Little River Drainage District Draining the Big Swamp. The Lorian Swamp is an area of wetlands on the Ewaso Ngiro river in Kenya. The Southern Ewaso Ngiro is a river in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya. These include the reticulated giraffe, grevy’s zebra, the Beisa Oryx, gerenuk and the blue-shanked Somali ostrich. Each of these rivers drains sandy soils that lack the ability to retain dissolved organic matter leached from terrestrial vegetation. Current Global Circulation Models (GCMs) forecast higher rainfall under climate change for East Africa [. Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. The four categories of ecosystem services distinguished in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [, Population densities of 100 people per km, Higher livestock densities prevailed in the upper and middle parts of the catchment (, Highest wildlife densities occur in Laikipia and the Matthews range (50 to 100 km North of Isiolo), where protected areas and wildlife conservancies are concentrated (, The permitted abstractions, which were in the order of 1 to 2 m, What are the consequences of these abstractions on the availability of water to downstream water users? ; Wilkes, S. Isiolo distric. Subscribe to receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals, You can make submissions to other journals. This resulted in delineation of the western part of the depression as an area that is frequently flooded, and the eastern part of the depression as a rarely flooded area. It plays an important role in the ecology of Lake Natron, the main regular breeding site for near-threatened lesser flamingos. The reserve is intersected by Ewaso Nyiro River which is also an important lifeline for many plants and animals. Impacts of environmental change on water resources in the Mount Kenya region. [2], The swamp lies in an arid zone. ; Njenga, K.; de Vries, P.F. those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s). The waters of this great river draw wildlife in great numbers to its banks, creating an oasis of green. Encompasses the Grassland Watershed (specifically identified within the Basin Plan which in turn encompasses the Drainage Project Area (97,000-acres of intensively farmed land that discharges selenium enriched subsurface agricultural drainage). The Lorian Swamp is also considered to recharge the Merti Aquifer (, Given the high seasonal and inter-annual variation in the volume of water discharged into the swamp, one would expect noticeable variation in vegetation production. Caroni River, river in northwestern Trinidad, in the country of Trinidad and Tobago in the southern Caribbean Sea. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland used by pastoralists downstream. I have traveled our waterways for many years and have been fortunate to experience the beauty, solitute, and adventure that they offer. Mutiga. A river is a large natural stream of water that flows in a definite channel across the land Some rivers dry during dry season and are called seasonal rivers Other rivers flow throughout the year and are called permanent rivers A place where rivers start is called the source A place where rivers drain it’s water is known as the mouth The major rivers from Aberdare Forest are Athi and Tana, which flow into the India Ocean, Ewaso Nyiro that drains into the Lorian Swamp and River Malewa that drains into Lake Naivasha. The Lorian Swamp The Lorian Swamp in the lowlands of Isiolo District [7] in Kenya (Figure 1) receives water from the Ewaso Ng’iro River, which drains the slopes of the Aberdares Mountains and Mount Kenya [2,8]. ; Su, Z.; Woldai, T.; Becht, R. Water allocations as a planning tool to minimize water use conflicts in the upper Ewaso Ng’iro North Basin, Kenya. In. Get it as soon as Fri, Jan 15. For most of its length it runs through the Rutshuru Territory in North Kivu province.. Grassland Basin: Westside drainage into the San Joaquin River upstream of the Orestimba Creek watershed. The next march was a long one Available online: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The first major drainage works were done by the Thames County Council then the district local authority. [1] Past development promoted crop and livestock production in the upper catchment [, There is little insight into the effects of these developments on the availability of water to users living near the downstream Lorian Swamp. The abstractions are thus likely to affect both surface water dependent ecosystem services, but the effects on the well-being of communities remain largely unknown. As the Wannon River heads south and leave the Grampians Mountain it enters Bradys Swamp (appox. The swamps in question are the Pontine Marshes (Pomptinae Paludes) to the south of Rome.Efforts to drain them have been made, on and off, for three millennia, and even predate Roman settlement in the region. As for the water used in primary production, we employed satellite imagery to compile evidence for a link between the Ewaso Ng’iro and the vegetation in the Lorian Swamp. Additional drainage needs to be provided to the area so that the water drains away faster than it is replenished. Both flow into swamps. ; Muchuri, J.M. The major rivers from Aberdare Forest are Athi and Tana, which flow into the India Ocean, Ewaso Nyiro that drains into the Lorian Swamp and River Malewa that drains into Lake Naivasha. Further analysis of 12 years of monthly SPOT-VEGETATION satellite imagery reveals higher NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index) values in the swamp than nearby rainfed areas, with the difference in NDVI between the two positively related to river water discharged into the swamp. Lorian Hemingway: Lorian Hemingway (born December 15, 1951) is an American author, whose books include the memoir Walk on Water, the novel “Walking Into the River”, and the non-fiction book “A World Turned Over” about the devastation of her hometown, South Jackson, Mississippi, by the Candlestick Park Tornado in 1966. The swampy zone is 196 kilometres (122 mi) long and has a greatest width of 25 kilometres (16 mi), covering an area of 231,000 hectares (570,000 acres). Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. Aberdare range supplies all the water to Nairobi through Sasumua and Ndakaini dam. The river passes through the Laikipia plateau and Archer’s Post beyond which it crosses an undulating plateau where it changes in an ephemeral river to discharge its waters near Merti into the … Elephants crossing the Ewaso Ng'iro river at Samburu Park, Kenya, 100 miles west of Lorian Swamp. Thecatchment area that is the source of water for Lakes Bogoria and Baringo, and feeds EwasoNgiro River which also drains into the Lorian Swamp in northern Kenya, has been degraded and destroyed, through human activities including overgrazing of livestock, illegal settlements and charcoal burning. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journals are solely In the developing world, a common feature in small and medium-sized river basins that drain into arid lands is the lack of meteorological and hydrological records [. When it emerges from under ground at Dequindre rd, it expands to a 2 chain wide, open ditch. This will also ensure that water users that depend on the Lorian Swamp in the dry season and during droughts are not rendered vulnerable because of unregulated upstream abstractions [. Personal Communication, 2011. River discharge originating in humid high elevation areas traditionally provides secure surface water to downstream users and sustains forage production in many African drylands. We first assess the abstractions and demands for water upstream and the river water supplies at the upper and the lower end of the Lorian Swamp. The Lorian Swamp in the lowlands of Isiolo District in Kenya receives water from the Ewaso Ng’iro River, which drains the slopes of the Aberdares Mountains and Mount Kenya [2,8]. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2021 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. 5. The Lorian Swamp in the lowlands of Isiolo District [, The Merti Aquifer, situated in the lower part of the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment (, The vegetation of the swamp has three different zones; the upper, We calculated the number of days per year when river water entered the head of the swamp, as well as the number of months when river water reached the end of the swamp as follows. By 1926 the Hickman overflow area or bypass, which extended into Kentucky and Tennessee, was blocked by the federal frontline levee. Drainage . Although the main river originates from the Nyandarua range, the tributaries originating from Mt. To what extent does the reduced discharge of water into the swamp affect downstream water users? It is not protected. You seem to have javascript disabled. The Lorian Swamp is an area of wetlands on the Ewaso Ngiro river in Wajir South, North Eastern Province, Kenya. Our results revealed that the Lorian Swamp is poor in mammalian wildlife, which contrasts with the richness of large mammal species reported in the early twentieth century [, The impact of abstractions on ground water related benefits are low at this moment, but may increase in the medium to long term, particularly when the mining of the aquifer continues to increase. The purpose of this paper is to describe the hydrology of the Ewaso Ng’iro River basin and compile new and existing evidence on the effect of water abstractions in the upper part of the basin on the availability of river water dependent ecosystem services in the Lorian Swamp. Uaso Nyiro river. Christensen, M.L. SPOT-VEGETATION Programme. Box 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya, Faculty of Geography and Geosciences, University of Trier, Universitätsring 15, Trier 54286, Germany, Centre for Training and Integrated Research in ASAL Development (CETRAD), P.O. 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